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terça-feira, 7 de outubro de 2008

Extraocular Muscles

The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control the movements of the (human) eye. The actions of the extraocular muscles depend on the position of the eye at the time of muscle contraction.

The Innervation:

The nuclei or bodies of these nerves are found in the brain stem. The nuclei of the abducens and oculomotor nerves are connected. This is important in coordinating motion of the lateral rectus in one eye and the medial action on the other. Two antagonistic muscles, like the lateral and medial recti. Contraction of one leads to inhibition of the other. Muscles shows small degrees of activity even when resting, keeping the muscles taut. This "tonic" activity is brought on by discharges of the motor nerve to the muscle.

Coordination of Movement Between Both Eyes:

Intermediate directions are controlled by the simultaneous actions of multiple muscles. When one shifts the gaze horizontally, one eye will move laterally (toward the side) and the other will move medially (toward the midline). This may be neurally coordinated by the central nervous system, to move together and almost involuntarily. This is a key factor in the study of squint, namely, the inability of the eyes to be directed to one point.
There are two main kinds of movement: conjugate movement (the eyes move in the same direction) and disjunctive (opposite directions). The former is typicsl when shifting gaze right or left, the latter is convergence of the two eyes on a near object. Disjunction can be performed voluntarily, but is usually triggered by the nearness of the target object. A "see-saw" movement, namely, one eye looks up and the other down, is possible, but not voluntarily; this effect is brought on by putting a prism in front of one eye, and the relevant image is apparently displaced. However, to avoid double vision from noncorrsponding points from, the eye with the prism must move up or down, following the image passing through the prism. Likewise torsion (rolling) on the anteroposterior axis (from the front to the back) can occur naturally, as when one tips his head to one shoulder, the torsion, in the opposite direction, keeps the image vertical.
These extraocular muscles have their origin in the back of the orbit in a fibrous ring called the annulus of Zinn, then course forward through the orbit and insert onto the globe on its anterior half (i.e., in front of the eye's equator). These muscles are named after their straight paths, and are called the four rectus muscles, or four recti.
-superior rectus
-inferior rectus
-medial rectus
-lateral rectus
The other two extraocular muscles follow more complicated paths.
-The superior oblique muscle originates at the back of the orbit (a little closer to the medial rectus) and courses forward to a rigid pulley, called the trochlea, on the upper, nasal wall of the orbit. The muscle passes through the pulley, turning sharply across the orbit, and inserts on the lateral, posterior part of the globe. Thus, the superior oblique goes backward for the last part of its path, and because it goes over the top of the eye, it pulls it downward and laterally.
-The last muscle is the inferior oblique, which originates at the lower front of the nasal orbital wall, and passes under the LR to insert on the lateral, posterior part of the globe. Thus, the inferior oblique pulls the eye upward and laterally.

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