Bem-Vindos Welcome Bienvenido

Bem-vindos à Óptica Atlantis, um espaço totalmente dedicado ao mundo da óptica e aos seus componentes em que você pode consultar e retirar informações sobre óptica, consultar novidades e noticias relacionadas com este tema. A função deste espaço é ajudá-lo a compreender melhor os seus olhos e a sua visão.

"Os olhos são os senhores da astronomia e os autores da cosmografia; eles desvendam e corrigem toda a arte da humanidade; conduzem os homens ás partes mais distantes do mundo; são os príncipes da matemática, e as ciências que os têm por fundamento são perfeitamente correctas.Os olhos medem a distância e o tamanho das estrelas; encontram os elementos e suas localizações; eles... deram origem à arquitectura, à perspectiva, e à divina arte da pintura...Que povos, que línguas poderão descrever completamente sua função! Os olhos são a janela do corpo humano pela qual ele abre os caminhos e se deleita com a beleza do mundo".

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sábado, 20 de outubro de 2007


The ability to see is dependent on the actions of several structures in and around the eyeball. The graphic below lists many of the essential components of the eye's optical system.
When you look at an object, light rays are reflected from the object to the cornea, which is where the miracle begins. The light rays are bent, refracted and focused by the cornea, lens, and vitreous. The lens' job is to make sure the rays come to a sharp focus on the retina. The resulting image on the retina is upside-down. Here at the retina, the light rays are converted to electrical impulses which are then transmitted through the optic nerve, to the brain, where the image is translated and perceived in an upright position.

Think of the eye as a camera. A camera needs a lens and a film to produce an image. In the same way, the eyeball needs a lens (cornea, crystalline lens, vitreous) to refract, or focus the light and a film (retina) on which to focus the rays. If any one or more of these components is not functioning correctly, the result is a poor picture. The retina represents the film in our camera. It captures the image and sends it to the brain to be developed. The macula is the highly sensitive area of the retina. The macula is responsible for our critical focusing vision. It is the part of the retina most used. We use our macula to read or to stare intently at an object.

The conjunctiva is the thin, transparent tissue that covers the outer surface of the eye. It begins at the outer edge of the cornea, covering the visible part of the sclera, and lining the inside of the eyelids. It is nourished by tiny blood vessels that are nearly invisible to the naked eye.
The conjunctiva also secretes oils and mucous that moisten and lubricate the eye.

The choroid lies between the retina and sclera. It is composed of layers of blood vessels that nourish the back of the eye. The choroid connects with the ciliary body toward the front of the eye and is attached to edges of the optic nerve at the back of the eye.

The ciliary body lies just behind the iris. Attached to the ciliary body are tiny fiber "guy wires" called zonules. The crystalline lens is suspended inside the eye by the zonular fibers. Nourishment for the ciliary body comes from blood vessels which also supply the iris.
One function of the ciliary body is the production of aqueous humor, the clear fluid that fills the front of the eye. It also controls accommodation by changing the shape of the crystalline lens. When the ciliary body contracts, the zonules relax. This allows the lens to thicken, increasing the eye's ability to focus up close. When looking at a distant object, the ciliary body relaxes, causing the zonules to contract. The lens becomes thinner, adjusting the eye's focus for distance vision.
With age, everyone develops a condition known as presbyopia. This occurs as the ciliary body muscle and lens gradually lose elasticity, causing difficulty reading.
The cornea is the transparent, dome-shaped window covering the front of the eye. It is a powerful refracting surface, providing 2/3 of the eye's focusing power. Like the crystal on a watch, it gives us a clear window to look through.
Because there are no blood vessels in the cornea, it is normally clear and has a shiny surface. The cornea is extremely sensitive - there are more nerve endings in the cornea than anywhere else in the body.
The adult cornea is only about 1/2 millimeter thick and is comprised of 5 layers: epithelium, Bowman's membrane, stroma, Descemet's membrane and the endothelium.
The epithelium is layer of cells that cover the surface of the cornea. It is only about 5-6 cell layers thick and quickly regenerates when the cornea is injured. If the injury penetrates more deeply into the cornea, it may leave a scar. Scars leave opaque areas, causing the corneal to lose its clarity and luster.
Boman's membrane lies just beneath the epithelium. Because this layer is very tough and difficult to penetrate, it protects the cornea from injury.
The stroma is the thickest layer and lies just beneath Bowman's. It is composed of tiny collagen fibrils that run parallel to each other. This special formation of the collagen fibrils gives the cornea its clarity.
Descemet's membrane lies between the stroma and the endothelium. The endothelium is just underneath Descemet's and is only one cell layer thick. This layer pumps water from the cornea, keeping it clear. If damaged or disease, these cells will not regenerate.
Tiny vessels at the outermost edge of the cornea provide nourishment, along with the aqueous and tear film.
The six tiny muscles that surround the eye and control its movements are known as the extraocular muscles (EOMs). The primary function of the four rectus muscles is to control the eye's movements from left to right and up and down. The two oblique muscles move the eye rotate the eyes inward and outward.
All six muscles work in unison to move the eye. As one contracts, the opposing muscle relaxes, creating smooth movements. In addition to the muscles of one eye working together in a coordinated effort, the muscles of both eyes work in unison so that the eyes are always aligned.
The colored part of the eye is called the iris. It controls light levels inside the eye similar to the aperture on a camera. The round opening in the center of the iris is called the pupil. The iris is embedded with tiny muscles that dilate (widen) and constrict (narrow) the pupil size.
The sphincter muscle lies around the very edge of the pupil. In bright light, the sphincter contracts, causing the pupil to constrict. The dilator muscle runs radially through the iris, like spokes on a wheel. This muscle dilates the eye in dim lighting.
The iris is flat and divides the front of the eye (anterior chamber) from the back of the eye (posterior chamber). Its color comes from microscopic pigment cells called melanin. The color, texture, and patterns of each person's iris are as unique as a fingerprint.
The macula is located Troughly in the center of the retina, temporal to the optic nerve. It is a small and highly sensitive part of the retina responsible for detailed central vision. The fovea is the very center of the macula. The macula allows us to appreciate detail and perform tasks that require central vision such reading.
The optic nerve transmits electrical impulses from the retina to the brain. It connects to the back of the eye near the macula. When examining the back of the eye, a portion of the optic nerve called the optic disc can be seen.
The retina's sensory receptor cells of retina are absent from the optic nerve. Because of this, everyone has a normal blind spot. This is not normally noticeable because the vision of both eyes overlaps.

The pupil is the opening in the center of the iris. The size of the pupil determines the amount of light that enters the eye. The pupil size is controlled by the dilator and sphincter muscles of the iris. Doctors often evaluate the reaction of pupils to light to determine a person's neurological function.
The retina is a multi-layered sensory tissue that lines the back of the eye. It contains millions of photoreceptors that capture light rays and convert them into electrical impulses. These impulses travel along the optic nerve to the brain where they are turned into images.
There are two types of photoreceptors in the retina: rods and cones. The retina contains approximately 6 million cones. The cones are contained in the macula, the portion of the retina responsible for central vision. They are most densely packed within the fovea, the very center portion of the macula. Cones function best in bright light and allow us to appreciate color.
There are approximately 125 million rods. They are spread throughout the peripheral retina and function best in dim lighting. The rods are responsible for peripheral and night vision.
This photograph shows a normal retina with blood vessels that branch from the optic nerve, cascading toward the macula.
The sclera is commonly known as "the white of the eye." It is the tough, opaque tissue that serves as the eye's protective outer coat. Six tiny muscles connect to it around the eye and control the eye's movements. The optic nerve is attached to the sclera at the very back of the eye.
In children, the sclera is thinner and more translucent, allowing the underlying tissue to show through and giving it a bluish cast. As we age, the sclera tends to become more yellow.
The vitreous is a thick, transparent substance that fills the center of the eye. It is composed mainly of water and comprises about 2/3 of the eye's volume, giving it form and shape. The viscous properties of the vitreous allow the eye to return to its normal shape if compressed.
In children, the vitreous has a consistency similar to an egg white. With age it gradually thins and becomes more liquid. The vitreous is firmly attached to certain areas of the retina. As the vitreous thins, it separates from the retina, often causing floaters.
The aqueous is the thin, watery fluid that fills the space between the cornea and the iris (anterior chamber). It is continually produced by the ciliary body, the part of the eye that lies just behind the iris. This fluid nourishes the cornea and the lens and gives the front of the eye its form and shape.

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